How do the different translations of Dashiell Hammett's The Maltese Falcoln (1930) in Spain show the workings of the censorship system under Franco's regime?

Penco, Cristina T. (2010) How do the different translations of Dashiell Hammett's The Maltese Falcoln (1930) in Spain show the workings of the censorship system under Franco's regime? MA dissertation, University of Portsmouth.

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    This dissertation seeks to show the workings of the censorship mechanisms in Franco’s Spain, through the descriptive case study of Dashiell Hammett’s The Maltese Falcon (TMF, 1930), a masterpiece of the hard-boiled genre, in Spain. This text presents many controversial issues and is particularly interesting because it was first translated in Spain before the dictatorship (1933), twice during Franco’s regime (1953 and 1968) and in democratic Spain (1992). Because of the very elaborate mechanism of censorship under Franco’s regime, detailed documentation on censorship processes and criteria are available for study and this is of great relevance to my project. Chapter one introduces the history of the translations of TMF in Spain. TMF was first translated in Spain by Fermín de Casas and published in 1933 by Dédalo, as El Halcón del Rey de España (EHRE, 1933). It was published in a very liberal historical context, after years of repression. Thus it is a very racy and provocative translation which differs immensely from the original. A thorough textual analysis of EHRE (1933) is carried out and different reasons why this was a racy translation are discussed. The fate of EHRE (1933) is affected by Franco’s rise to power. Chapter two analyses the censorship exercised on this first translation, which was withdrawn in 1939. Although it was submitted on three different occasions to the censors (1939, 1943 and 1954), it remained banned by the Francoist censorship system until 1963. That year, a self-censored version of EHRE (1933) was published under the title El Halcón del Rey (EHR, 1963). In the meanwhile, the second translation of TMF (1930) in Spain, an Argentinian imported version, El Halcón Maltés (1953), translated by Antonio Rubio and published by Editorial Planeta, managed to slip through the cracks of the censorship and was published in 1953. Whereas chapter two of this dissertation proves to show the censorship mechanisms in the first decades of Franco’s Regime, chapter three will look at the later period of censorship, through the analysis of the third translation of TMF in Spain, El Halcón Maltés (1968). It was translated by Fernando Calleja and published by Alianza Editorial. In the conclusion, results emerged from the analysis of these ‘four’ translations (EHRE, 1933 and its censored version, EHR, 1963; EHM, 1953 and EHM, 1968) are further evaluated in view of their contributions to the research carried out so far in the area of Censorship on Translation. These ‘three’ translations of TMF (1930), other than proving retranslation theory (since the very domesticating first translation differs from the foreignisation of its retranslations), show the workings of the censorship system under Franco’s regime, demarcating two different stages or periods in the censorship, before and after the 60s. Against general belief, censorship was characterised by its inconsistency and arbitrariness, rather than its repressiveness, and other external factors unrelated to the text made their way into the censorship boards.

    Item Type: Dissertation
    Departments/Research Groups: Faculty of Humanities and Social Sciences > School of Languages and Area Studies
    Depositing User: Jane Polwin
    Date Deposited: 20 Jan 2011 12:49
    Last Modified: 28 Jan 2015 11:16

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