Stop the bloody ivory trade: exploring the extent to which elephant poaching and the illicit ivory trade is funding al-Shabaab's terrorist activities

Hawkes, Emily (2016) Stop the bloody ivory trade: exploring the extent to which elephant poaching and the illicit ivory trade is funding al-Shabaab's terrorist activities. BSc dissertation, University of Portsmouth.

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    Abstract

    The aim of this study was to explore the extent to which elephant poaching and the illicit ivory trade in Eastern Africa is funding Somalian terror group, al-Shabaab, and the activities contributing to their alleged reign of te1ror. The past two decades has seen an increasing body of literature exploring the relationship between organised crime and terrorism, which posits that organised crime activities , such as the trade in ivory, has become a major source of income for terrorist groups like al-Shabaab. Such has culminated in the development of the 'terrorism-ivory trade nexus'.
    Through the critical evaluation of the existing literature governmental and non-governmental reports and policies, this study explored the extent to which this terrorism-ivory trade nexus can be accurately applied to al-Shabaab and their alleged involvement in both elephant poaching and the consequent trade of illicit ivory to overseas markets. The study therefore considered the links between elephant poaching, the ivory trade and the activities of al-­Shabaab other criminal components of the ivory trade identified in Eastern Africa, and the current international responses to the global trade in ivory.
    Despite research supporting the terrorism-ivory trade nexus this study has found conf1icting arguments with regards to al-Shabaab's involvement in elephant poaching and the ivory trade, which has had consequent implications for law-enforcement agencies and policy makers on a national and international level. As a result, this study proposes various recommendations for future research.

    Item Type: Dissertation
    Departments/Research Groups: Faculty of Humanities and Social Sciences > Institute of Criminal Justice Studies
    Depositing User: Jane Polwin
    Date Deposited: 19 Oct 2016 12:26
    Last Modified: 19 Oct 2016 12:26
    URI: http://eprints.port.ac.uk/id/eprint/22391

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