Are type I diabetics at higher risk of dental caries? a review of the literature and the role of the dental hygiene therapist.

Dempsey, Ciara (2013) Are type I diabetics at higher risk of dental caries? a review of the literature and the role of the dental hygiene therapist. BSc dissertation, University of Portsmouth.

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    Background: Type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) prevalence is continually rising and is expected to reach epidemic levels by 2030. As a result Dental Hygiene Dental Therapists (DHDTs) will be treating more diabetic patients. The relationship between type 2 diabetes mellitus and oral health has been well documented. However, definitive research on the effects of T1DM on dental caries reports contradictory findings. If providing the best possible treatment is to be achieved then this must be rectified and clear guidelines produced on the management of the type 1 diabetic patient.

    Aim: The aim of this paper is to present and critique the literature on T1DM and dental caries including; caries related risk factors and the role of dental professionals in the management of a diabetic patient.

    Methods: A literature search was carried out on; Pubmed, Medline, Web of Science and Google Scholar. The key terms searched in different combinations included; Type 1 diabetes, Dental caries, Type 1 diabetes and oral health and Caries risk of Type 1 diabetic. A review of English language publications (1997-2012) was conducted which focused on finding longitudinal and cross-sectional studies on children and adolescents.

    Results: The literature regarding diabetes and dental caries development and prevalence yields inconsistent results. Some studies claim higher caries prevalence caused by reduced Ph of oral environment, higher concentration of glucose in saliva, reduced flow rate or defective salivary gland function. However, other studies have found a reduced caries prevalence in type 1 diabetics due to reduced sucrose intake, earlier interventions and increased awareness of the associations between both diseases.

    Conclusion: Type 1 diabetics with both good and poor glycaemic control and oral hygiene are at increased risk of caries development. This is due to a combination of behavioural and biological factors as opposed to single dietary or oral hygiene elements. T1DM has an impact on the oral health and dentition of children and adolescent sufferers and although the literature is conflicting, all diabetic patients should be treated as high risk.

    Item Type: Dissertation
    Departments/Research Groups: Faculty of Science > Portsmouth Dental Academy
    Depositing User: Jane Polwin
    Date Deposited: 22 Oct 2013 16:47
    Last Modified: 28 Jan 2015 12:30

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